Phase III - Final Design
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|During this phase-plans, specifications and contract documents are finalized. Condemnation, if required to obtain R/W or easements, is completed.
Utility relocations, that are practical and reasonable to accomplish, occurs during this phase, prior to beginning construction.
Environmental studies/concerns are addressed and resolved. Also, other agency approvals are received subsequent to final plan review.
Task No. 1 - Schedule Third Utility Meeting
When the plans are approximately 80 percent complete or at the stage where the horizontal and vertical alignments and the storm sewer profiles have been approved, the third utility meeting will be scheduled by the Consultant/Project Manager. A pre-meeting agenda shall be distributed and meeting minutes prepared.
See Phase II, Task No. 7 for exhibits.
The primary purpose of this meeting is to confirm what utilities need to be relocated, and establish if the facility is located in public R/W / easements or private easements. Determine whether Evergy streetlights are to be removed and replaced with City streetlights. Also, the project schedule will be reviewed and a time frame for relocating utility facilities will be addressed. If utilities requiring relocation are in private easements the project manager shall request relocation plans, a detailed cost estimate of relocations, a relocation schedule, a marked-up set of plan sheets highlighting existing utility locations, existing easement locations with book and page, and copies of easement documents.
Refer to the City's Utility Relocation Guidelines for all relocation planning.
See Plan Submission Requirement for Right-of-Way Permits for additional information.
If streetlights, that were formerly owned by Evergy, are to be removed, prepare a letter to Black & McDonald requesting a proposal for removal costs. This is generally only applicable to Neighborhood Street Reconstruction projects, CDBG projects and Streetlighting projects.
- Exhibit No. III-1a is the Streetlighting Removal Procedure
- Exhibit No. III-1b is a sample letter to Black & McDonald requesting the proposal for streetlights removal
- Exhibit No. III-1c is a sample proposal letter from Black & McDonald
- Exhibit No. III-1d is a sample Release to Construction letter to Black & McDonald
- Exhibit No. III-1e is a sample Do Not Release to Construction letter to Black & McDonald
- Exhibit No. III-1f is a sample Removal Notification letter Evergy
Task No. 2 - Execute Utility Agreements
If documentation is confirmed that utilities to be relocated are in private easements, the Project Manager shall receive an agreement, forward it to the law department for review/approval and to the Public Works Director for approval. The Contract Specialist shall be copied on all internal correspondence.
|Note: The City does not pay for utility relocations in platted public easements.|
- Exhibit No. III-2a is a sample utility agreement for Evergy
- Exhibit No. III-2b is a sample utility agreement for Water District No. 1 of Johnson County
- Exhibit No. III-2c is a sample utility agreement for Atmos Energy Corporation
- Exhibit No. III-2d is a sample utility agreement for Magellan Pipeline Company
- Exhibit No. III-2e is a sample sanitary sewer line crossing agreement
- Exhibit No. III-2f is a relocation agreement for Kansas Gas Service.
Task No. 3 - Complete Environmental Process
Once the City receives The Status of Project Environment Concerns (Final) from KDOT's Environmental Services Section the City shall obtain all required environmental permits. All environmental permit applications, correspondence and issued permits shall be packaged together in the project files for easy retrieval. Environmental Permits required to be on site during construction.
A Storm Water Pollution and Prevention Plan (SWPPP) must be prepared by the project team. All permits, environmental or otherwise, obtained by the contractor shall be packaged together in SWPPP booklet and shall be on site at all times once construction begins. For more information refer to Chapter 4.0 Environmental of KDOT's LPA Project Development Manual.
See SWPPP Template for assembling the SWPPP notebook.
Task No. 4 - Complete NEPA Documentation
The preliminary Environmental Classification deemed appropriate in accordance with 23CFR771 will be indicated on the KDOT Form 883. As the project design proceeds, more information becomes available that may, in some cases, cause a revision in the Environmental Classification of the project. Final determination of the environmental class will determine the type of documentation that will be required for the project.
If an Environmental Impact Statement or an Environmental Assessment is determined to be the appropriate document, it will be the responsibility of the City and its consultant to prepare the document with coordination from KDOT and FHWA.
If the project is determined to be a categorical exclusion, the Design Summary Document transmitted by KDOT will be the documentation. KDOT will prepare the Design Summary Document for FHWA concurrence. Once concurrence is received from FHWA, the KDOT's Local Road Engineer will forward it to the City.
- Exhibit No. III-4 is an example of the Design Summary Document with FHWA concurrence
For more information refer to Chapter 4.0 Environmental of KDOT's LPA Project Development Manual.
Task No. 5 - Begin Right-of-Way / Easement Negotiations
Subsequent to receiving the appraisal report/estimate of just compensation, the Project Manager will begin the negotiation process.
See FHWA's Real Estate Acquisition Guide For Local Public Agencies for information that will be necessary when a project is started that requires the acquisition of real estate and receives any Federal funding.
For KDOT projects, the process shall be in accordance with KDOT's LPA Project Development Manual. When federal funding is involved KDOT's Design Summary Document and environmental approval from FHWA must be received from KDOT BLP prior to proceeding with right-of-way negotiations.
Engineering (development of property descriptions and deeds) and appraisal of tracts to be acquired on a project may begin at any time after the limits of the project's right-of-way needs has been established. These efforts should begin early enough in the project development process to allow sufficient time for acquisition and, if necessary, eminent domain procedures. Negotiations with the property owners and offer of compensation should not occur until completion of NEPA documentation since changes in the project design may become necessary as a result of the NEPA process.
No right-of-way acquisition may begin until after Section 4(f), Section 6(f), or Section 106 activities have been completed. BLP will transmit a copy of the FHWA concurrence in the NEPA document and copies of the appropriate ROW forms when the NEPA review has been completed. Early acquisition (acquisition prior to completion of the NEPA document) may be approved for individual properties when it is determined to be in the public's and/or property owner's best interest. A written request for early acquisition shall be submitted to BLP that identifies the specific property and includes an explanation of why early acquisition as being requested.
KDOT's LPA Project Development Manual describes R/W Acquisition Policies with the following attachments/information:
- Procedures for R/W Acquisition on simple projects;
- Certification of Real Property Acquisition procedures;
- City offer to purchase Statement of Compensation;
- Partial donation of R/W;
- Donation of R/W;
- Value Finding Appraisal;
The Project Manager or the appraiser must invite the property owner or owner's designated representative to accompany the appraiser during the inspection of the property.
For additional information see "Real Property Acquisition for Kansas Highways, Roads, Streets and Bridges".
For Federal Regulations regarding Relocation Assistance and Real Property Acquisition see 49CFR24.
- Exhibit No. III-5a is the Real Property Acquisition Checklist.
- Exhibit No. III-5b is a sample Letter from Appraiser to Property Owner. (to be replaced with better example when available)
- Exhibit No. III-5c is a sample Acquisition Notes. A log of owner contact should be kept for each owner.
- Exhibit No. III-5d is the City's standard Mortgage Release for Individuals.
- Exhibit No. III-5e is the City's standard Mortgage Release for Corporations.
- Exhibit No. II-34i is a copy of Appraisal Review form.
The City's standard Easement Acquisition Agreement will be completed along with the negotiated right-of-way and easement documents.
A mortgage release shall be obtained if the value of acquisition exceeds $50,000.
For more information see Chapter 7.0 Right of Way of KDOT's LPA Project Development Manual.
Task No. 6 - Begin Condemnation Process
For tracts that cannot be acquired by negotiation, the Law Department shall file documents to begin the Condemnation Process.
- Exhibit No. III-6 is an example transmittal memo to the City Clerk for filing of the condemnation documents.
Task No. 7 - Complete Condemnation Process
Once the Appraisers Report and Statement of Appraisers Fees are filed with District Court, the Law Department will route the Appraisers Report and Statement of Appraisers Fees along with the check requests for signatures by the City Attorney and Director of Public Works. Once the check requests are signed, they will be provided to Finance with a request to route the checks to the Law Department. The Law Department will forward the payment to the District Court and receive a receipt of payment. Law Department will provide Public Works with a copy of the receipt. Once the payment is received by District Court, the easements belong to the City. If property owners contact the City for their payment, they should be directed to collect their award from the Clerk of the District Court of Johnson County.
The Law Department will also obtain a certified copy of the Appraisers Report and forward it to the Contract Specialist. Contract Specialist will file this copy with Johnson County Records and Tax Department. Once a file-stamped copy is received, the Contract Specialist will provide a copy to Law and to the technician who maintains the easements.
Task No. 8 - Acquire Right-of-Way / Easements - Submit KDOT Forms 1306 and 1304
Refer to Chapter 8.0 Status of Utilities of KDOT's LPA Project Development Manual for additional information on utility relocation.
KDOT Form 1306 is Certification By the City to the Kansas Department of Transportation of Real Property Acquisition Procedures and Utility Arrangements. (KDOT Form 1306 combines and replaces KDOT Forms 1303 and 1303A).
Refer to Chapter 7.0 Right of Way of KDOT's LPA Project Development Manual for additional information on Right of Way acquisition process.
|Note: Form 1306 must be completed and returned to BLP on all projects even if no rights of way are being acquired.
- Exhibit No. III-8a is a memo from the U.S. Department of Transportation regarding Status of Utility and Railroad Agreements and Adjustments.
- Exhibit No. III-8b is KDOT Memo B.R.U.D. 84-10 regarding Status of Utility and Railroad Agreements and Adjustments.
- Exhibit No. III-8c is KDOT Form 1304 - List of Utilities & Status of Same (completed example).
- Exhibit No. III-8d is KDOT Form 1306 - Certification By the City to the KDOT of Real Property Acquisition Procedures and Utility Arrangements (completed example).
|Note: All utilities from Phase II task 7 should be considered when completing 1304.|
Task No. 9 - Submit Final Check Plans for Review
The Consultant/Project Engineer shall complete the project plans and distribute electronically via Bluebeam session to the following:
- all members of the Project Team (see Maintenance Plan Review Process for Maintenance Division routing),
- City Engineer,
- City Traffic Engineer,
- Erosion Control Coordinator (Stormwater Section).
The Final Plan Review Checklist will be used as a review aid for final plans.
Erosion and Sediment Control plans will be prepared as part of the final plans.
A NPDES NOI permit is necessary for any work disturbing more than one acre total. The NOI Permit can be submitted to KDHE once final plans are completed at least 60 days before starting construction.
|Note: Any Johnson County Vertical Control Network Bench Marks that will be disturbed as part of the project must be reset. The standard specification and a bid item for this work must be included in the contract documents. These benchmark locations can be found on Johnson County AIMS Mapping web page under the Utilities layer.|
- Exhibit No. III-9a is a NPDES NOI Permit application.
- Exhibit No. III-9b is a copy of the State of Kansas NPDES General Permit for construction.
For projects containing CARS funding, plans and specifications must be submitted to the Johnson County Director of Infrastructure for review and comment.
- Exhibit No. III-9c is a letter from CARS accepting plans along with additional information and requirements prior to advertising project.
For KDOT projects, the electronic final plans shall be submitted to the BLP.
|Note: For the instructions on submitting E-Plans to BLP see the following:|
See BLP Memo 03-12 regarding Engineer's Professional Seal and Signature on Plans.
See BLP Memo 06-06 for a list of information that is to be submitted with the PS&E. The items shown in BLP Memo 06-06 are only required to be submitted if the project is administered (Let) by the Bureau of Local Projects. In most cases projects are administered by the City and the items shown in the above memo need not be submitted.
Any additive work needs to be approved by KDOT prior to bid. Refer to Chapter 10.0 LPA-Administered Procedures of the KDOT's LPA Project Development Manual, Section 10.3.2.3.8.
Task No. 10 - Submit Specifications and Special Provisions
The Consultant/Project Engineer shall complete the Specifications and Special Provisions to the specifications that are applicable and necessary for the project.
City of Overland Park Standard Specification are included by reference in the Contract Documents through the use of a Table of Contents containing links to the online documents. This Table of Contents is to be modified to include only those specification sections that are to be part of the Contract Documents. The modified Table of Contents, containing the chosen specification sections, is to be saved as a PDF in the Contract Documents folder of the project directory.
|Note: Visit KDOT's web page for the latest Special Provisions. The applicable Special Provisions are to be printed and included in the contract documents.|
- Exhibit No. III-10c List of proprietary items for Traffic Signals and Street Lighting to be used in the preparation of plans and specifications.
Specifications for a proposed CARS project must be submitted to the Johnson County Director of Infrastructure for review and comment.
The specifications are to be submitted with the final plans. See Phase III, Task No. 9.
Task No. 11 - Submit Contract Documents and Insurance
The Project Manager shall work with the Contract Specialist to prepare the Contract Documents and determine from the insurance options, the required insurance coverage for the project. Project Manager, in the conjunction with the appropriate division manager, shall determine the amount of liquidated damages to be included in the agreement. For KDOT projects, when applicable, Contractor will provide Railroad Protection Liability Insurance for work on railroad RAV and Pollution Liability Insurance for Lead Based Paint removal projects.
All federal-aid projects are subject to legislative and regulatory DBE requirements. During this task the appropriate DBE Goal for the project will be established. Prior to advertisement, a detailed estimate shall be submitted to the BLP for coordination with KDOT's Office of Civil Rights to determine the DBE Goal. Once the Project Development Engineer receives the DBE Goal, the City will be notified so that the DBE Goal may be updated in the proposal. The DBE Contract Goal amount established by the Civil Rights Administrator (CRA) shall be shown on the DBE Contract Goals sheet (07-19-80-R13) and included in the contract documents.
City's Standard Contract Documents:
- Exhibit No. III-11a-1 Agreement
- Exhibit No. III-11a-2 Bid (use for hard copy bids)
- Exhibit No. III-11a-2a Bid (use for all ebid projects)
- Exhibit No. III-11a-2c eBid Certification Form for KDOT projects
- Exhibit No. III-11a-3 General Conditions
- Exhibit No. III-11a-4a_1 Instructions to Bidders - Option A
- Exhibit No. III-11a-4a_2 Instructions to Bidders (eBid) - Option A
- Exhibit No. III-11a-4b_1 Instructions to Bidders - Option B
- Exhibit No. III-11a-4b_2 Instructions to Bidders (eBid) - Option B
- Exhibit No. III-11a-4c_1 Instructions to Bidders - Option C
- Exhibit No. III-11a-4c_2 Instructions to Bidders (eBid) - Option C
- Exhibit No. III-11a-5 Insurance Options
- Exhibit No. III-11a-6_1 Notice to Bidders (use for hard copy bids)
- Exhibit No. III-11a-6_2 Notice to Bidders (eBid)
- Exhibit No. III-11a-6a Notice to Bidders (KDOT Projects)
- Exhibit No. III-11a-7 Labor and Material Payment Bond
- Exhibit No. III-11a-8 Performance Bond
- Exhibit No. III-11a-8a Maintenance Bond
- Exhibit No. III-11a-9 Statutory Bond
- Exhibit No. III-11a-10 Table of Contents
- Exhibit No. III-11a-10a Table of Contents (KDOT Projects Only)
- Exhibit No. III-11a-11 Appointment of Service Agent
- Exhibit No. III-11a-12 List of Utilities & Status of Same
For KDOT (Federally Funded) projects, the City’s Standard Contract Documents shall be supplemented with the following required contract provisions:
- 08-10-66-R05 - Certification - Noncollusion and History of Debarment;
- 04-26-90-R05 - Limitations on Use of Federal Funds for Lobbying;
- 07-19-80-R13 - DBE Contract Goals;
- 01-01-11 - Tax Clearance Certificate;
- 08-04-92-R03 - Contractual Services with Current Legislator or Current Legislators Firm;
- 11-03-80-R09 - Requirement for Affirmative Action to Ensure EEO;
- 09-06-94-R01 - Notice to Contractors - U.S. Department of Transportation Hotline;
- 15-01004 - Sales Tax Exemption;
- 02-01-95-R02 - Area Practice For Johnson County Kansas;
- 11-15-96-R05 - Specific Equal Employment Opportunity Contractual Requirement;
- KS20220140 - Federal Wage Rates General Decision;Prevailing Wages for Johnson County;
- FHWA-1273 - Federal-Aid Construction Contracts;
- 07-18-80-R29 - Federal Aid Contracts Utilization of Disadvantaged Businesses;
- 15-PS0008 - Revision to above document 07-18-80-R27;
- 3-10-06-R01 - Federal Aid Contracts Utilization of Disadvantaged Businesses Suppliers/Regular Dealers;
- Department of Labor Payroll (Form WH-347);
- Instructions for Completing WH-347.
- 15-01002 - Information to Contractors (Status of Utilities);
- Form 1304 - Status of Utilities. (Also see Phase III, Task No. 8);
- Form 1307 - List of Permits and Status of Same. (Also see Phase II, Task No.24);
- 15-01017 - Cargo Preference Act;
- 01-21-11-R01 - "Buy America" Materials;
See BLP Memo 10-4 for a summary of requirements on federal-aid projects.
|Note: The list of current Wage Determinations is to be obtained from SAM.Gov and inserted into the Contract Documents just before advertisement of the project. The Wage Determinations shall be rechecked for modifications ten days prior to bid opening. If modifications have been made since advertisement, an addendum showing the current Wage Determinations shall be issued.|
The above described supplemental documents/certifications shall be placed in the Contract Documents after the Bid sheets. A majority of the above documents can be found on the KDOT's list of Required Contract Specifications for Local Authority Let Projects. The others can be found by following the web link next to the document in the list.
See Contract Documents for CDBG Projects for additional information regarding CDBG funded projects.
Task No. 12 - Prepare Engineer’s Cost Estimate
The Consultant/Project Manager shall prepare the Engineer’s Cost Estimate.
|Note: Engineer's Estimate shall be stamped and signed by the engineer of record.|
- Exhibit No. III-12 is an example of signed Engineer's Cost Estimate.
For more information see KDOT's LPA Project Development Manual.
Task No. 13 - Prepare Design Summary Document
The Design Summary Document must include the Engineer's Cost Estimate and the proposed DBE goal so that KDOT can review it before the project is let. The project cannot be obligated (funded) until the Design Summary Document is completed. In addition, the project cannot be advertised until the project has been obligated by KDOT. The Design Summary Document should be included as an attachment to the Request Obligation of Funds in Phase III, Task No. 14..
- Exhibit No. III-13a is an example of the Design Summary Document.
Additional information necessary to complete Design Summary Document can be found in the Design Summary Document with FHWA Concurrence sent from BLP and included in Phase III, Task No. 4
Task No. 14 - Submit PS&E Package
The City will submit to the BLP all necessary documentation for the Plans, Specifications and Estimate (PS&E) approval. The PS&E Package will include completed plans, project specifications and bid documents, engineer's estimate of probable cost, KDOT Forms 1306, 1304, 1307, all required permits and the Design Summary Document certifying compliance with appropriate criteria. The PS&E Package shall be submitted to the BLP electronically via the FTP site a minimum 30 days prior to desired advertisement date. (See FTP Instructions).
The email shall be sent to firstname.lastname@example.org and copied to the BLP's Project Manager notifying them of uploaded PS&E Package and requesting the Authorization of obligation of federal funds for the project.
- Exhibit No. III-14 is an example email requesting Obligation of Funds
Task No. 15 - PS&E Review
Upon receipt of the PS&E package, BLP will review the documents to confirm that the project complies with federal aid eligibility requirements.
The construction cost estimate will be distributed to the Program Consultant in KDOT's Office of Civil Rights to determine the DBE Goal. Once the Project Development Engineer receives the DBE Goal, the City will be notified so that the DBE Goal may be updated in the proposal. See Phase III, Task No. 11 for additional information regarding coordination of a DBE Goal.
The Project Development Engineer will review the City's documents to verify that all required specifications are included. For a current list of federally-required specifications go to KDOT's Required Contract Specifications for Local Authority Let Projects. The bid items on the plans and the bid documents will be compared with the estimate for accuracy.
The Project Development Engineer will contact the City for any clarification or modifications needed to the plans or other submitted documents.
Task No. 16 - Schedule Fourth Utility Meeting
Subsequent to completing plans, Specifications and Contract Documents, the Consultant/Project Manager shall schedule the fourth utility meeting. The primary purpose of this meeting is to receive a status report regarding utility facility relocations, adjustments and agreements. Based upon this information, a tentative bid opening date can be established.
See Phase II, Task No. 7 for exhibits.
Task No. 17 - Complete Utility Relocations
Submit KDOT Forms 1306 (see note below) and 1304 - The Project Manager shall advise the City Engineer when all utilities, that are practical to be moved or adjusted prior to construction, have been moved/adjusted. If any utility relocations are not complete by the bid letting, the current status should be reflected on Form 1304, included with the bid documents.
For KDOT projects, Forms 1306 and 1304 shall be forwarded to the BLP.
|Note: 1306 must be completed and returned to BLP on all projects even if no rights of way are being acquired.
Refer to Chapter 8.0 Status of Utilities of KDOT's LPA Project Development Manual for additional information on utility relocation.
Task No. 18 - Schedule Optional Public Information Meeting
When final plans are complete, the third public information meeting may be scheduled. This meeting is optional. The primary purpose of this meeting is to present the final plans, hear citizens comments and questions and present the anticipated bid opening date. For KDOT projects the Notice of Public Information Meeting must be published in Kansas Register and The Legal Record.
- See Phase II, Task No. 15 for list of invitees.
- See Phase II, Task No. 36 for exhibits.
|Note: This and all subsequent Public Information Meeting notices should ask if participants need a language interpreter or a hearing assistance device and a phone number. All meeting rooms shall be ADA accessible. The KDOT's Equal Opportunity and Civil Rights Information brochure in English and Spanish is to be made available at all public meetings.|
For those who wish to use a Blue Valley School District facility for the public meeting, an on-line Facility Rental Reservation Request is available. Once the request is submitted, the BVSD Facility Scheduling Office will send a confirmation if the requested space is available.
Task No. 19 - Receive Obligation of Funds from KDOT
After PS&E plans and documents have been approved by BLP, KDOT program and project management will request FHWA to obligate the project's federal funds. Once funds have been obligated, the BLP PM will submit the Authority to Administer the project for approval by the BLP Bureau Chief.
Once the Authority to Administer has been approved, it will be submitted to the City via electronic memo (Authority to Bid) by email. The City shall advertise the project for a minimum of 30 days.
- Exhibit No. III-19 is an example letter from KDOT approving Obligation of Funds and authorization to bid the contract.
|Note: This task is tracked by KDOT. The Project Engineer shall ensure this task is complete.|
Task No. 20 - Obtain City Department Approval
The Project Manager shall obtain the appropriate Division Head signature on the plan title sheet.
Task No. 21 - Obtain Agency Plan Approvals
The Project Manager shall determine if other agency plan approvals are necessary.
KDOT will require the final approved plans prior to obligation of funds. If there is other city, county or state funding, other agency's approval will usually be required, or as stipulated in the agreements. The appropriate official's name and title shall be placed on the plan title sheet.
|Note: For KDOT Projects this task is tracked by KDOT. The Project Engineer shall ensure this task is complete.|
Task No. 22 - Confirm Construction Engineering Responsibility
The Project Manager in consultation with the City Engineer/City Traffic Engineer will determine whether construction engineering responsibilities will be handled by the City Staff or use a private consulting engineer. For KDOT projects a proposal must be submitted to KDOT requesting that KDOT prepare an Agreement for the performance of the construction engineering services. The City will determine whether or not to request reimbursement for construction engineering services based on the estimated construction cost and KDOT funding cap amount. If this service is to be performed by City Staff, KDOT – BLP must be informed of the City’s decision whether to utilize federal funds for the construction engineering as soon as possible but no later than 6 – 8 weeks prior to the day of the scheduled letting.
- Exhibit No. III-22a is a Proposal For Construction Engineering Services.
- Exhibit No. III-22b is an example of "Exhibit A" referred to in the above Proposal for Construction Engineering Services.
If this service is to be performed by a private consulting engineer and the City does not desire federal participation in the cost of the construction engineering services for the project, the Resolution No. 4550 will be applicable. See Phase II, Task No. 3. KDOT - BLP needs to be notified 3-4 months prior to the day of the scheduled letting.
If this service is to be performed by a private consulting engineer and the City does desire federal participation in the cost of the construction engineering services for the project, the "Consultant Selection Guide for Construction Engineering on LPA Projects" shall be followed. Contact KDOT - BLP for the current pre-qualified Consultant List for Construction Engineering. KDOT - BLP needs to be notified 3-4 months prior to the day of the scheduled letting.
- Exhibit No. III-22c is the "Consultant Selection Guide for Construction Engineering on LPA Projects".
- Exhibit No. III-22d is a Force Account Equipment Rate Table.
- Exhibit No. III-22e is a letter from BLP accepting overhead rate.
- Exhibit No. III-22f is a "Example Billing" for reimbursement of Construction Engineering Services.
For more information see Chapter 11.0 Construction Engineering (CE) Consultant Selection and Agreement of KDOT's LPA Project Development Manual.