Yield Sign Design Guidelines
City Guidelines Regarding the Installation of “Yield” Signs
Traffic Services Division of the Department of Public Works
Governing Document Reference:
Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices for Streets and Highways (MUTCD), 2009 or latest edition and the Overland Park Municipal Code (OPMC) 12.04.032, 12.04.057 – 12.04.059, 12.04.080, and Resolution No. 4037.
Engineering judgment should be used to establish intersection control. The following factors should be considered:
- A. Vehicular, bicycle, and pedestrian traffic volumes on all approaches;
- B. Number and angle of approaches;
- C. Approach speeds;
- D. Sight distance available on each approach; and
- E. Reported crash experience.
“Yield” or “Stop” signs should be used at an intersection if one or more of the following conditions exist:
- A. An intersection of a less important road with a main road where application of the normal right-of-way rule would not be expected to provide reasonable compliance with the law;
- B. A street entering a designated through highway or street; and/or
- C. An unsignalized intersection in a signalized area.
In addition, the use of “Yield” or “Stop” signs should be considered at the intersection of two minor streets or local roads where the intersection has more than three approaches and where one or more of the following conditions exist:
- A. The combined vehicular, bicycle, and pedestrian volume entering the intersection from all approaches averages more than 2,000 units per day;
- B. The ability to see conflicting traffic on an approach is not sufficient to allow a road user to stop or yield in compliance with the normal right-of-way rule if such stopping or yielding is necessary; and/or
- C. Crash records indicate that five or more crashes that involve the failure to yield the right-of-way at the intersection under the normal right-of-way rule have been reported within a 3-year period, or that three or more such crashes have been reported within a 2-year period.
Once the decision has been made to control an intersection, the decision regarding the appropriate roadway to control should be based on engineering judgment. In most cases, the roadway carrying the lowest volume of traffic should be controlled. A “Yield” or “Stop” sign should not be installed on the higher volume roadway unless justified by an engineering study. The following are considerations that might influence the decision regarding the appropriate roadway upon which to install a “Yield” or “Stop” sign where two roadways with relatively equal volumes and/or characteristics intersect:
- A. Controlling the direction that conflicts the most with established pedestrian crossing activity or school walking routes;
- B. Controlling the direction that has obscured vision, dips, or bumps that already require drivers to use lower operating speeds; and
- C. Controlling the direction that has the best sight distance from a controlled position to observe conflicting traffic.
“Yield” (R1-2) signs assign right-of-way to traffic on certain approaches to an intersection. Vehicles controlled by a “Yield” sign need to slow down to a speed that is reasonable for the existing conditions or stop when necessary to avoid interfering with conflicting traffic. “Yield” signs may be installed:
- On the approaches to a through street or highway where conditions are such that a full stop is not always required.
- For a channelized turn lane that is separated from the adjacent travel lanes by an island, even if the adjacent lanes at the intersection are controlled by a traffic control signal or by a “Stop” sign.
- An intersection where a special problem exists and where engineering judgment indicates the problem to be susceptible to correction by the use of the “Yield” sign.
- Facing the entering roadway for a merge-type movement if engineering judgment indicates that control is needed because acceleration geometry and/or sight distance is not adequate for merging traffic operation.
The “Yield” sign shall be installed on the near side of the intersection on the right-hand side of the approach to which it applies. The “Yield” sign shall be located as close as practical to the intersection it regulates, while optimizing its visibility to the road user it is intended to regulate. Except at roundabouts, where there is a marked crosswalk at the intersection, the “Yield” sign should be installed in advance of the crosswalk line nearest to the approaching traffic.
If a raised splitter island is available on the left-hand side of a multi-lane roundabout approach, an additional “Yield” sign should be placed on the left-hand side of the approach. If a raised splitter island is available on the left-hand side of a single lane roundabout approach, an additional “Yield” sign may be placed on the left-hand side of the approach.
“Yield” lines, that are used to supplement a “Yield” sign, should be located at the point behind which vehicles are required to yield.
City of Overland Park Guidelines for Installation:
The reviewer should observe the intersection sight distance triangle to determine if adequate sight distance cannot be achieved according to the AASHTO publication A Policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets, latest edition. “Yield” signs will be installed at locations as determined by the City Traffic Engineer to control traffic. A field investigation is required to determine if a “Yield” sign is to be installed at various types of intersections as follows.
- If intersection sight distance requirements for the minor street at residential / residential street “T”–intersections with no control are not met based on Case I (No Control, but Allowing Vehicles to Adjust Speed), some type of control should be considered. The sight distance requirements are based on the guidelines indicated in the AASHTO publication A Policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets, latest edition.
- If the intersection sight distance triangle provides adequate sight distance for a yield condition for left or right turns, a “Yield” sign should be considered. According to these criteria, whenever the sight triangle is limited based on yield conditions for left or right turns, a “Stop” sign should be considered. Refer to the Intersection Control Guidelines for Residential Streets-Stop vs Yield Control for reviewing intersection sight distance for standard 28' back to back residential streets. (Also see Stop Sign Design Guidelines Regarding the Installation of "Stop Signs”)
- When not called for based on sight distance requirement, a “Yield” sign may be posted at residential T-intersections (3-leg) to assign right-of-way. The leg (or legs) to be signed will be determined by engineering judgment based on driver expectations. A typical situation where assignment of ROW is needed is a situation where the major street is the leg of the T-intersection. An example of such a situation is the intersection of 164th and Ash. Ash, which is the connecting street between the neighborhood and the collector street, intersects at a “T” with 164th Street. Being identified as the major street a driver on Ash may assume the right-of-way at 164th Street. However, as Ash is the leg of the T-intersection, a driver on 164th may also assume the right-of-way. Thus the need to assign right-of-way arises.
- “Yield” signs will only be installed on the right hand side of the approach lanes and not on the left hand side in the splitter island at single lane roundabouts.
- At multi-lane roundabouts, an additional “Yield” sign will be installed in the splitter island on the left hand side of the approach.
At Free-Flow Right Turn Lanes:
- “Yield” signs will be installed at locations where free-flow right turn lanes merge onto another street, e.g. at ramp terminals coming off the interstate or other highway.
Conditions where “Yield” signs will not be installed:
- When not warranted unless otherwise directed by Council action or as determined by the City Traffic Engineer.
- Typically, “Yield” signs will not be installed at any intersection other than T-intersections, roundabouts, or at locations of free-flow right turn lanes.
- If not meeting any of the above criteria.
The standard size of the “Yield” (R1-2) sign will be 36” x 36” x 36” when facing traffic on a single lane approach and 48” x 48” x 48” when facing traffic on a multi-lane approach. It shall be a downward-pointing equilateral triangle with a wide red border and the legend YIELD in red on a white retro-reflectorized background.
Applicable Overland Park Traffic Ordinances – Chapter 12.04:
12.04.32 Duties of City Traffic Engineer
- a) The City Traffic Engineer shall determine the installation and proper timing and maintenance of traffic control devices; conduct engineering analysis of traffic accidents and devise remedial measures; conduct engineering investigations of traffic conditions; plan the operation of traffic on the streets and highways of this City; cooperate with other City officials in the development of ways and means to improve traffic conditions; and carry out the additional powers and duties imposed by ordinances of this City.
- b) The City Traffic Engineer, the Assistant City Traffic Engineer, or the Director of Public Works shall place, maintain, change, and remove traffic control signs, signals, and devices, when and as required under the traffic ordinances of this City to make effective and carry out the provisions of said ordinances, and may place, maintain, change and remove such additional traffic control devices as he may deem necessary to regulate traffic or to warn or guide traffic.
(History: Ord. TC-1260,C §1,86;TC-1260 §31,84)
ARTICLE X. RIGHT-OF-WAY
12.04.057 Vehicles Approaching or Entering Intersection.
- a) When two vehicles approach or enter an intersection from different highways at approximately the same time, the driver of the vehicle on the left shall yield the right-of-way to the vehicle on the right.
- b) The right-of-way rule declared in subsection (a) is modified at through highways and otherwise as hereinafter stated in this ordinance.
(History: K.S.A.8-1526; Ord. TC-1260PP '3, 98; TC-1260 '56, 84)
12.04.058 Vehicle Turning Left. The driver of a vehicle intending to turn to the left within an intersection or into any alley, private road or driveway shall yield the right-of-way to any vehicle approaching from the opposite direction which is within the intersection or so close thereto as to constitute an immediate hazard.
(History: K.S.A.8-1527; Ord. TC-1260 '57, 84)
12.04.59 Stop Signs and Yield Signs.
- a) Preferential right-of-way may be indicated by stop signs or yield signs.
- b) Except when directed to proceed by a police officer, every driver of a vehicle approaching a stop sign shall stop at a clearly marked stop line, but if none, before entering the crosswalk on the near side of the intersection, or, if none, then at the point nearest the intersecting roadway where the driver has a view of approaching traffic on the intersecting roadway before entering it. After having stopped, the driver shall yield the right-of-way to any vehicle in the intersection or approaching on another roadway so closely as to constitute an immediate hazard during the time when such driver is moving across or within the intersection or junction of roadways such driver shall yield the right-of-way to pedestrians within an adjacent crosswalk.
- c) The driver of a vehicle approaching a yield sign shall in obedience to such sign slow down to a speed reasonable for the existing conditions and if required for safety to stop, shall stop at a clearly marked stop line, but if none, before entering the crosswalk on the near side of the intersection, or, if none, then at the point nearest the intersecting roadway where the driver has a view of approaching traffic on the intersecting roadway before entering it. After slowing or stopping, the driver shall yield the right-of-way to any vehicle in the intersection or approaching on another roadway so closely as to constitute an immediate hazard during the time when such driver is moving across or within the intersection or junction of roadways. Such driver shall yield the right-of-way to pedestrians within an adjacent crosswalk. If a driver is involved in a collision with a vehicle in the intersection or junction of roadways or with a pedestrian in an adjacent crosswalk, after driving past a yield sign without stopping, such collision shall be deemed prima facie evidence of the driver's failure to yield right-of-way.
(History: K.S.A.8-1528; Ord. TC-1260, KK §6, 95; TC-1260 §58, 84)
12.04.060 Vehicle Entering Roadway. The driver of a vehicle about to enter or cross a roadway from any place other than another roadway shall yield the right-of-way to all vehicles approaching on the roadway to be entered or crossed.
(History: K.S.A.8-1529; Ord. TC-1260 §59, 84) See: 12.04.002 & 12.04.080
12.04.080 Emerging from Alley or Private Driveway or Building. The driver of a vehicle emerging from an alley, building, private road or driveway within a business or residence district shall stop such vehicle immediately prior to driving onto a sidewalk or onto the sidewalk area extending across such alley, building entrance, road or driveway, or in the event there is no sidewalk area, shall stop at the point nearest the street to be entered where the driver has a view of approaching traffic thereon.
(History: K.S.A.8-1555; Ord. TC-1260 '79, 84)