Streetlight Design Manual
General Purpose of the Design Manual:
This Streetlight Design Manual has been written to serve as a general guideline when designing a streetlighting system for the City of Overland Park, Kansas. Although there are specific design requirements, the guidelines contained herein should not be a substitute for proper engineering design and judgment based on specific project situations. The purpose of this Streetlight Design Manual is to aid consultants as well as City of Overland Park staff to be consistent in the practice of designing streetlighting plans. It provides an overview of the design criteria to be used in the design; streetlighting installation determination; design considerations to take into account; explanation of the approved streetlighting equipment that is to be used; what information should be included on the plan sheets; and how to compute the quantities. Any questions regarding this manual may be directed to Bruce Wacker, P.E., Assistant City Traffic Engineer at the City of Overland Park, Kansas at (913) 895-6027 or by email at email@example.com.
Purpose of Streetlighting:
Reference to Other Documents:
Public or Private Ownership, Operation and Maintenance:
City-Owned, Operated and Maintained Lighting Systems:
Privately Owned, Operated and Maintained Lighting Systems:
The following section addresses the design criteria used for streetlighting in the City of Overland Park depending on the various types of lighting being considered. There are two types of streetlighting design used within the City of Overland Park:
- Continuous lighting, and
- Safety lighting.
Continuous streetlighting is required for all collector and thoroughfare designated streets. Safety lighting should be used for residential designated streets. There are specific lighting criteria for each of the two types that will be discussed.
Continuous lighting is defined as streetlighting that is designed to provide specific average maintained light levels and uniformity ratios between adjacent poles in accordance with the functional classification of the street and the corresponding pedestrian conflict area classification. Continuous lighting design shall be required for all collector and thoroughfare street classifications.
The following streetlighting design criteria will be used for all thoroughfare streets and collector streets, whether improved or unimproved, regardless of the number of through travel lanes and auxiliary lanes, as identified on the latest edition of the City of Overland Park “Official Street Map”, and the “Future Development Plan” available from the Planning and Development Services Department.
Functional Street Classifications:
- The “collector” street classification includes all super-collector, residential collector streets, apartment streets, commercial streets and industrial streets regardless of the number of lanes; whether improved or unimproved.
Pedestrian Conflict Area:
- The “high” pedestrian conflict area includes areas where significant numbers of pedestrians are expected to be on the sidewalks or crossing the streets during darkness. These are typically areas that are in the “Nonresidential Category” zoned for “commercial” or “mixed-use” such as retail areas, near theaters, or major pedestrian generators.
- The “medium” pedestrian conflict area includes areas such as libraries, apartments, neighborhood shopping and schools which would be considered in the “Nonresidential Category” and zoned as either “public and semipublic” or in the “Residential Category” that would be zoned as either “high-density” or “medium-high density”.
- The “low” pedestrian conflict area includes areas in the “Residential Category” zoned as “medium-density” or “low-density” such as single family residential housing or duplexes.
- The maintained averages for luminance, as listed in Table 1, shall be met or exceeded for all continuous lighting designs. The corresponding uniformity ratios and/or veiling luminance ratios shall be equal to or better than those listed in the following table for luminance.
Table 1: Luminance Criteria Street and Pedestrian Conflict Area Luminance Criteria Functional Street Classification Pedestrian Conflict Area Maintained Average (Lavg)
Uniformity Ratio (Lavg:Lmin)
Uniformity Ratio (Lmax:Lmin)
Veiling Luminance Ratio (LVmax:Lavg)
Thoroughfare High 1.2 3.0:1 5.0:1 0.3:1 Medium 0.9 3.0:1 5.0:1 0.3:1 Low 0.6 3.5:1 6.0:1 0.3:1 Collector High 0.8 3.0:1 5.0:1 0.4:1 Medium 0.6 3.5:1 6.0:1 0.4:1 Low 0.4 4.0:1 8.0:1 0.4:1
Since June 11, 1979, the City policy has been not to continuously light residential streets. Only" partial" or "safety" lighting is provided. All street lights on residential streets will be installed in conformance with the following basic guidelines.
At Intersections with Other Residential Streets:
On the Same Side as the Sidewalk:
Near Intersections with Another Pole Oriented in a Different Direction:
- Where an intersection has a light pole located at the corner but the luminaire is oriented toward the direction of the primary local street, a second light pole may be located on the secondary local street oriented in the direction of its centerline as long as the light pole is installed greater than 50’ from the back of curb line on the primary local street extended, and it is not on the same corner as the light oriented toward the primary street.
Within Cul-de-Sac Bulbs:
At Changes of Roadway Alignment:
Mid-block Street Lights:
- A minimum number of mid block street lights will be installed in order to achieve a desired pole spacing of approximately 250 feet. The maximum spacing between lights should not exceed 280 feet and the minimum spacing between lights should not be less than 225 feet unless otherwise approved by City staff. Lights should desirably be located on or near a property line and not in front of window lines if avoidable.
Intersections pose the highest conflict area for both vehicles and pedestrians. Therefore, the light levels should be higher for intersections than each individual street. The illuminance method, rather than the luminance method is the recommended design for intersection lighting. The following design criterion has been established for the illumination at street intersections.
|Functional Street Classification||Average Maintained Illumination
at Pavement by Pedestrian Area Classification, (Fc)
|Thoroughfare / Thoroughfare||34.0 / 3.4||26.0 / 2.6||18.0 / 1.8||3.0:1|
|Thoroughfare / Collector||29.0 / 2.9||22.0 / 2.2||15.0 / 1.5||3.0:1|
|Thoroughfare / Local||26.0 / 2.6||20.0 / 2.0||13.0 / 1.3||3.0:1|
|Collector / Collector||24.0 / 2.4||18.0 / 1.8||12.0 / 1.2||4.0:1|
|Collector / Local||21.0 / 2.1||16.0 / 1.6||10.0 / 1.0||4.0:1|
|*Local / Local||NA||NA||NA||NA|
*Intersection lighting analysis is not required for local / local street intersections. The criterion is satisfied if a light is placed at each intersection per At Intersections with Other Residential Streets:
The intersection lighting grid is defined as the quadrilateral whose adjacent sides intersect at the midpoint of the curb radii at the back of curb (See Figure 4). The amount of light should be proportional to the classification of the intersecting streets and be equivalent to the sum of the values used for each separate street. If an intersecting street is illuminated above the recommended value, then the intersection illumination value should be increased proportionately. Intersections of collector and thoroughfare streets with local streets should be illuminated according to Table 2 above since criteria has not been established for continuously lighting local streets.
Streetlighting Installation Determination:
The following information has been established for all City-owned and maintained streetlighting systems installed in public right-of-way. The following explains when streetlighting will be installed. Additional information is contained in Resolution No. 4036, A Resolution Establishing Policy for City-Owned Streetlighting, and the Overland Park Municipal Code, Chapter 13.10.
Local Residential Streets:
There are four main distinct scenarios identified in which street lights will be considered for installation. They are 1) streets with existing City-owned street lights, 2) streets that do not have any streetlighting, 3) streets that have streetlighting that was purchased from Kansas City Power and Light (KCP&L), and 4) new streets that are being constructed either through the City’s Capital Improvement Plan (CIP) or by developers.
Residential Streets with Existing City-owned Streetlighting:
- Where street plans were approved prior to February 7, 2011, the City will replace or modify the existing streetlighting system with a new streetlighting system meeting the current streetlighting resolution as the street(s) are reconstructed as part of a major residential street reconstruction program. This does not include general pavement rehabilitation programs such as micro-surfacing, chip seal or residential street overlay programs. The City will not consider requests or petitions to upgrade the existing streetlighting system to the current standards unless all other lighting obligations within the City have been met, including replacement of Kansas City Power and Light Company street lights the City has purchased and streets that currently do not have any streetlighting.
Residential Streets with no Existing Streetlighting:
Residential Streets with Existing KCP&L Streetlighting that was Purchased:
New Residential Streets
- Where street plans were approved on or after February 7, 2011, the developers are required to install street lights on all local residential streets which have street plans approved in accordance with Ordinance Chapter 13.10.050. Appropriate City staff shall have authority in determining the extent and phasing of street light construction, including the location of any applicable street light control centers that best fit into the overall master plan for future expansion of lighting circuits.
There are three main distinct scenarios identified in which street lights will be considered for installation. They are 1) streets with existing City-owned street lights, 2) streets that have streetlighting that was purchased from Kansas City Power and Light (KCP&L), and 3) new streets that are being constructed either through the City’s Capital Improvement Plan (CIP) or by developers.
Collector Streets with Existing KCP&L Streetlighting that was Purchased:
Collector Streets with Existing City-owned Streetlighting:
New Collector Streets:
- Where street plans were approved on or after February 7, 2011, developers are required to install street lights on all such types of streets which have street plans approved in accordance with Ordinance Chapter 13.10.050. Appropriate City staff shall have authority in determining the extent and phasing of street light construction, including the location of any applicable street light control centers that best fits into the overall master plan for future expansion of lighting circuits.
There are two main distinct scenarios identified in which street lights will be considered for installation. They are 1) new City-owned street lights, and 2) streets that have streetlighting that was purchased from Kansas City Power and Light (KCP&L).
New Thoroughfare Streets:
Thoroughfare Streets with Existing KCP&L Streetlighting that was Purchased:
|Top||Streetlighting Installation Determination:|
Establish the Lighting Design Criteria:
Light Loss Factor:
The luminaire selection should be based on the type of street as well as the ability to meet the lighting criteria and maximize the pole spacing. All luminaires used on collector streets and thoroughfare streets shall be LED cobrahead style as specified in the section “Approved Streetlighting Equipment”. All luminaires on residential streets shall still be high pressure sodium (HPS).
Luminaire Classifications for Collector and Thoroughfare Streets:
- In general LED luminaires are rated as Class A through Class D depending on their ability to light a particular type of roadway and cross section. An approximate comparison between the different classes of LED luminaires and HPS luminaires is as follows:
- Class A LED – approximately equivalent to a 400W HPS
- Class B LED – approximately equivalent to a 310W HPS
- Class C LED – approximately equivalent to a 250W HPS
- Class D LED – approximately equivalent to a 150W HPS
- All luminaires shall be from the City’s Approved Product List. One of the reasons the City has moved toward LED luminaires is to reduce the long term cost of electrical charges. Therefore, the lowest class of LED luminaire should be used in the design that satisfies the given lighting criteria. The designer should consult with the City’s project manager at the early stages in design to verify the proper fixture to use based on appropriate calculations
Luminaire for Residential Streets:
- All luminaires on residential streets shall be a post top mounted fixture with a 100W HPS lamp. The luminaire shall be from the City’s Approved Products List.
Pole Location Preferences on Residential Streets:
- Sidewalks are generally only constructed on one side of residential streets. Since the street lights do provide some residual benefit of lighting the sidewalk and enhance pedestrian safety, the first choice for locating the street light poles should be on the sidewalk side of the street.
- As long as there is a minimum of a 4’ grass parkway between the back of curb and the sidewalk, the poles should desirably be located in the grass parkway. The minimum distance from the back of curb to the center of the street light pole should be 3’. If a 3’ pole setback cannot be achieved, consideration should be made to move the sidewalk adjacent to the curb, at least near the vicinity of the pole, and locate the pole 1’ behind the sidewalk.
- If street light poles cannot be located on the sidewalk side due to storm drainage, utility conflicts or right-of-way considerations, the poles may be moved to the other side of the street. The 3’ minimum setback from the back of curb to the center of the pole should still be maintained.
Pole Location Preferences on Collector Streets:
- As long as there is a minimum of a 4’ grass parkway between the back of curb and the sidewalk, the poles should desirably be located in the grass parkway. The minimum distance from the back of curb to the center of the street light pole should be 3’. If a 3’ pole setback cannot be achieved, consideration should be made to move the pole 1’ behind the sidewalk. Longer bracket arms can be used to accommodate poles located behind the sidewalk.
- Occasionally collector streets will be constructed with a raised median the entire length or possibly on the approach of an intersection. Poles can be located within the median with luminaires mounted at 180 degrees to each other in order to provide lighting on each side of the median.
Pole Location Preferences on Undivided Thoroughfare Streets:
Pole Location Preferences on Divided Thoroughfare Streets:
- Street light poles with two luminaires oriented 180 degrees apart should be located in the center of raised medians in the case of divided thoroughfares. It is acceptable to locate street light poles in medians measuring a minimum of 4’ from back of curb to back of curb, since all poles will be mounted on breakaway supports.
- If the center median is depressed instead of raised, the poles should be located on the outside curb lines. The minimum distance from the back of curb to the center of the street light pole should be 3’. The arrangement of poles on the outside edges would preferably be staggered, but will vary depending on how wide the median is and how many lanes are in each direction.
Overhead Utility Line Clearance Requirements:
Overhead power lines or lower hanging cable lines should not be in contact with street light poles or luminaires. A minimum of 3’ horizontal and vertical clearance shall be maintained from any non-electric lines such as cable TV lines, aerial fiber lines, etc. Vertical and horizontal clearance to electric power lines shall be in accordance with KCP&L requirements and varies according to the line voltage. For lower voltage lines, the vertical and horizontal clearance should be in accordance with KCP&L Code Requirements DWG 130.1-12. The designer shall be responsible to determine if adequate clearance can be achieved and make adjustments to the pole locations or coordinate utility relocation if necessary. Whenever the vertical or horizontal distance from the nearest line to the pole or luminaire is less than 10’, KCP&L requires the line to be sleeved temporarily during the pole erection. The contractor will be required to contact KCP&L and coordinate the time the sleeves are necessary and to pay KCP&L a fee for their services.
Conduit Location Preferences:
On divided thoroughfare projects, where poles are located in the medians, the conduit location depends on the width of the median and whether the median consists of a concrete base with brick pavers or if the median consists of grass and/or landscaping. The design layout should indicate which of the “Miscellaneous Conduit Details” applies to each street light pole. The various “Miscellaneous Conduit Details” are shown on the General Notes and Legend Sheet in the Standard Details. Theses details should be consulted while reviewing the following discussion which outlines both situations.
Brick Paver Medians:
Grass or Landscaped Medians:
- When the median consists of grass or landscaping, the conduit should be shown to be installed 3’ behind the median curb and swept into the center of the median at each street light pole location. This allows the median to be landscaped between street light poles without the danger of cutting the conduit or cable in the future. Conduit runs from median nose to median nose should be offset slightly so it is not directly under the proposed object marker sign post that will be located directly behind the concrete median nose. This allows the sign post to be driven into the ground at the correct location without damaging the conduit.
Coordination with Traffic Signals at Intersections:
Junction Box Locations:
Proposed or Future Branch Circuit at Intersections:
- Junction boxes are not required on both sides of a street crossing. The junction box should only be installed on one corner to provide an opportunity to tie into a branch circuit either in conjunction with the current plan or in the future. The junction box should be installed on the corner in which the street light circuit on the side street will most likely be installed. See the following illustration.
Median Noses at Divided Thoroughfare Street Intersections:
- Junction boxes should be installed in each median nose on thoroughfare street intersections where the streetlighting conduit runs from median nose to median nose. This would not apply to signalized intersections. In the case of a signalized intersection, there would most likely be a traffic signal service box located in the median. The streetlighting cable should be installed in the traffic signal conduit. The streetlighting conduit would be terminated at the service box.
Connecting into Existing Circuits:
- Junction boxes should be used to tie into an existing circuit when it is not feasible to extend the proposed conduit to the next street light pole. This may happen at the boundary of a construction project. In those cases, the existing streetlighting cable should be field located during construction and a junction box should be installed over the top. The cable splice from new to existing should be accomplished in the junction box.
At the End of Platted Streets Between Building Phases:
Streetlight Control Centers:
Streetlight control centers are pre-wired cabinets with relays, breakers, etc. that control when the steetlights receive electricity based on built-in photo controls. Each control center will require a photo cell to energize the streetlighting circuits. Power is provided to the individual street light poles only when it is dark enough to close the contact in the photo cell. Otherwise, there is no power in the system. This is a safety feature so any excavation work that cuts the cable during daylight hours will not be posed with live electrical power.
Streetlight Control Center Locations:
- Street light control center locations are subject to provisions in City Ordinance ZRR-2626, which is an ordinance relating to the Unified Development Ordinance for the City of Overland Park, Kansas; amending and repealing existing Overland Park Municipal Code Sections 18.180.070, 18.250.050 and 18.410.110. A summary of the ordinance outlining the requirements for street light control centers and the application to street light control centers is provided, herein. The preferred location in order of priority is modified to apply to current practice in the case of street light control centers.
Utility Structure Ordinance:
- Any structure located within the public right-of-way shall be located behind the sidewalk and is subject to approval by the City Engineer. When placing utility structures, priority shall be given to finding available utility easements or right-of-way in preferred locations. Preferred locations, as listed in order of priority, are: 1) properties developed with non-residential uses; 2) thoroughfare landscape/utility easements; 3) street side yards on a corner lot behind the front yard setback; and 4) front yards within the required side yard setback. Proper utility easements or streetlight easements shall be acquired if the controller is to be located outside of the right-of-way.
Outside of Intersection Sight Distance Triangles:
Proximity to Power Source:
- The street light control center needs to be located within close proximity to the KCP&L power source, whether it is a power pole with a transformer or a ground mounted transformer. KCP&L requires that the distance from the control center to a pole mounted transformer cannot exceed 150’. The distance from the control center to a ground mounted transformer cannot exceed 200’.
Maximizing Control Center Circuits:
- Street light control centers have the capacity to operate four independent circuits and should be located such that the number of circuits utilized can be maximized. Ideal locations would be at a 4-leg intersection where one circuit can extend in all the four cardinal directions or at 3-leg intersections where at least three circuits can be utilized.
- The designer, with the help of the City staff, should evaluate all existing control centers in the vicinity of the project to determine if there are any underutilized controllers that can be relocated to a better location and could still be used to back-feed the existing street lights. The ultimate goal is to reduce the number of control centers in an area by placing them or relocating them in a more strategic location. This may require some off-site construction work to accommodate.
Control Center Orientation:
- Street light control centers shall be oriented such that the photocell always faces to the north or to the east. The plan symbol for the control center shows a concrete pad which always indicates the front side of the cabinet. As you would stand on the pad facing the front of the control center, the photocell is always located on the right hand side of the cabinet. The shaded portion of the triangle in the symbol represents the photocell.
Circuit Numbering Convention
- Circuit number 1 shall always be to the north
- Circuit number 2 shall always be to the east
- Circuit number 3 shall always be to the south
- Circuit number 4 shall always be to the west
- Exceptions are if modifying an existing control center which already is configured differently.
Connecting Proposed Electrical Cable into Existing Street Light Poles:
When extending proposed conduit into an existing street light pole foundation, several things should be considered in the design. If the pole is mounted to an existing screw-in foundation, the designer should verify with the City project manager that it is new enough to have two conduit entry holes. If it is an older foundation, it may only have one conduit entry. If the existing foundation is concrete, you will not be able to connect a new conduit to extend the circuit. In either the case of an old screw-in foundation with only one conduit entry or a concrete foundation, the designer will have to either install a junction box near the pole to intercept the existing cable/conduit, or replace the foundation with a new screw-in foundation. When connecting the proposed electrical cables to the existing electrical cables in the base of the pole, new fused and un-fused disconnects as well as new multi-tap electrical connectors shall be used. The existing fixture should also be shown to be re-lamped.
Luminaires Located on Combination Traffic Signal/Street Light Poles:
All luminaires mounted on combination traffic signal/street light poles at signalized intersections shall be connected to the streetlighting circuits controlled by the streetlighting control center instead of running off of the traffic signal control center.
Exceptions exist for isolated intersections where there are no surrounding street light control centers or streetlighting circuits. In such cases, the 3-1c #4 AWG USE streetlighting cables should be extended to the traffic signal control center for power. In addition, the designer should provide necessary notation to indicate that the multi-tap ballasts in any HPS luminaire should be wired for 120V. If the fixture is LED, the driver should not have to be modified. The luminaires should be equipped with photocells. A 15 amp circuit breaker should be called out to be installed in the secondary service pedestal to isolate the lighting circuit.
Requirements for House Addresses on Equipment:
Street light control centers and street light poles shall each be assigned a house address. The reasons for doing so and the procedures to accomplish each are discussed below:
House Addresses for Street Light Poles:
- House addresses are field stenciled on street light poles to help maintenance crews respond to lamp outages or maintenance issues when a citizen calls the situation in or if the maintenance crews are being dispatched to take care of a problem. It is a way to call-in and respond to specific problems and the address identifies the exact pole that requires attention.
- House addresses are only required for street light poles on collector or thoroughfare streets for poles providing 30’ and 40’ mounting heights. House addresses are not required for street lights on residential streets providing 15’ mounting heights, because the address on the house provides similar information.
- During the design, the City staff will provide the specific house numbers to the designer to add to the pole callout nomenclature. The standard practice is to assign an address at each end of the poles located at a median break or intersection. The two addresses are subtracted and the number is divided by one number less than the number of poles. The resulting number is then systematically added to the initial number, beginning with the smallest address and working toward the end. This establishes a uniform numbering system between the median breaks or intersections. Each address should be rounded to the closest numbered address. Pole addresses in a median should always be even numbers. Pole addresses on the side of the street shall have odd numbers if they are located on the south or east side of the street. Pole addresses shall have even numbers if they are located on the north or west side of the street. An example for a divided thoroughfare with the poles located in the center median follows:
- There is a median break on College Boulevard at King and Nieman Road. The 100 block for Nieman is 11100. The 100 block for King is 11300. A street light is located in the west median nose at Nieman and is assigned an address of 11108. Another street light is located in the east median nose at King and is assigned an address of 11294. Assume that there will be eight poles total between the two median noses.
- (11294 - 11108) = 26.6
- The next pole address would be 11134.6 + 26.6 = 11161.2 (Round the address to 11162).
House Addresses for Street Light Control Centers:
- Each street light control center requires an electrical service address. City staff will provide the control center address to the designer after the designer determines the location and whether Kansas City Power and Light (KCP&L) can provide the necessary 240V power to the proposed location. KCP&L uses the address for billing electrical usage to the City. The City also uses the address to track invoices.
- Each address for the street light control center shall be followed with an “LC” extension which stands for “Lighting Controller”. The procedure for coordinating with KCP&L is addressed below in Section 1.8 “Coordinating Electrical Service with KCP&L”.
Showing House Addresses on the Plans:
- House addresses for the street light control center should be shown in the station and offset callout for the pole and also should be the first number designated in each pole callout. For example:
- 11302-1-4 (8',12") (11134)
- Sta 10+23.5, 30.2' Rt
- The 11302 represents the control center address; the 1 represents circuit number 1; and 4 represents the 4th pole on circuit number 1. The 8’ and 12’ represents the luminaire bracket arm length on the left side and the right side, respectively and the 11134 is the assigned house address for the pole.
- The street light control center address should also be shown in a box located in the bottom right hand portion of each plan sheet in which it applies. If poles connected to that control center appear on more than one sheet, the address should appear on the same sheets. If there are poles that are fed from different control centers on one sheet, each control center address should appear on the sheet. The general format of the note should be:
Proposed Street Light Control Center Electrical Service Address: 11302 LC College Blvd
Coordinating Electrical Service with KCP&L:
The project manager or designer should perform the initial work to locate the streetlighting control center based on field conditions where there is an existing transformer. The street light control center needs to be located within close proximity to the KCP&L power source, whether it is a power pole with a transformer or a ground mounted transformer. In general, KCP&L requires that the distance from the control center to a pole mounted transformer cannot exceed 150’. The distance from the control center to a ground mounted transformer cannot exceed 200’.
The designer should provide the City a copy of all letter correspondence or email correspondence to KCP&L to insure the necessary procedures are being performed. After KCP&L has agreed to a preliminary power source and location, the project manager or designer should prepare a preliminary plan sheet showing the location of the power pole and the location of the control center with conduit and notes indicating the location where power will be obtained. After the power location has been established, the project manager will then assign an electrical service address to each control center as outlined in the document “Procedure for Assigning an Electrical Service Address to a Streetlighting Controller or Traffic Signal Controller and Acquiring Power on Site”.
Removal of Existing Street Lights:
All existing street lights that will be removed shall be identified on the plan sheets. The exact procedure varies depending on whether the existing street lights are the ones that were purchased from KCP&L or if they are existing lights that were installed per the City of Overland Park standard details. The procedures for both are explained below:
Removal of Existing City Owned Street Lights Installed per Overland Park Standard Details:
- All existing City owned street lights shall be shown on the plans. Any existing street lights that will not be re-used in the final design shall be indicated to be removed by a construction note. The note should include the removal of the pole, luminaire, arm and screw-in foundation. Existing concrete pole foundations should be shown to be removed to a depth of at least 24”. All conduit and cable can be abandoned in place or can be removed at the option of the contractor if it is in conflict with other construction items.
Removal of Existing Street Lights Purchased from KCP&L:
- All existing street lights shall be shown on the plans. The City will determine which lights should be designated to be removed. The designer shall indicate any pole not to be re-used as “Existing Street Light to be Removed by Others”. The City of Overland Park or their on-call representative will remove the poles and not the project contractor.
- City staff will coordinate with their on-call representative for the removal of the lights following the operating procedure established by the City. The process involves writing the on-call representative to provide them a list of poles that are scheduled to be removed. The on-call representative will submit a cost estimate to perform the work which needs to be approved by the Director of Public Works. After approval, the project manager will coordinate the removal with the on-call representative and notify in an attempt to keep the lights operational as long as possible before being removed. A letter will then be sent to KCP&L instructing them to remove the lights from their database and revise their monthly billing. (See the Streetlight Removal Procedure for removal of streetlights that were purchased from KCP&L)
Voltage Drop Calculations:
Permissible Voltage Drop:
- Perm Voltage Drop = System Voltage x 5% Drop x 0.95 line fluctuation factor
- = 240 x 0.05 x 0.95
- = 11.4 volts
HPS Fixture Operating Current:
- The operating amps for each luminaire are based on the wattage of the lamp used.
- Operating Amps = 1.3 x Wattage
- Voltage x Line Fluctuation Factor
- Operating Amps = 1.3 x Wattage
- 240 x 0.95
- The following operating amps should be used in the design calculations for HPS fixtures:
HPS Fixture Operating Amps 100 Watt 150 Watt 250 Watt 400 Watt 0.5 Amps 0.9 Amps 1.4 Amps 2.3 Amps
LED Fixture Operating Current:
- The operating amps for each luminaire are based on the wattage of the lamp used.
- Operating Amps = Wattage
- Voltage x Line Fluctuation Factor
- Operating Amps = Wattage
- 240 x 0.95
LED Fixture Operating Amps Class A Class B Class C Class D 0.9 Amps 0.77 Amps 0.58 Amps 0.32 Amps
Cable Circular Mils:
- A circular mil is a unit of area used when denoting the cross sectional area of a wire or cable.
- 1 mil = 0.001 inch
- To convert the diameter of a wire to mils: mil = d x 1,000
- Example: #4 AWG wire has a diameter of 0.2043037 inches.
- 0.2043037 inches x 1,000 = 204.3037 or 204 mils
- CM = mil2
- Example: Circular mils of #4 AWG wire
- CM = (204.3037 mils)2
- CM = 41,740
Calculating Voltage Drop:
- E = I x R
- E = voltage
- I = Current (in amperes)
- R = Resistance (in ohms)
Properties of Stranded Copper Conductors Cable Size (AWG) Area
4 41,740 0.310
- The voltage drop in any line is calculated from the formula:
- Voltage Drop = 2 x K x Q x I x D
- K = Direct Current Constant (for copper, K = 12.9 ohms)
- Q = Aternating Current Adjustment Factor (Q = 1, for all wire less than 2/0 wire)
- I = Load, in Ampers
- D = Distance from the power supply, in feet
- CM = Cross sectional area of cable, in Circular Mills
- Voltage Drop = 2 x 12.9 x 1.0 x Operating Amps x Distance
- We add 5% is added to the center to center distance to allow for snaking of the conduit and cable.
- Area (circular mils) = 25.8 x Operating Amps x No. of Lamps x 1.05 x Distance
- Permissible Voltage Drop
- The voltage drop should then be checked using the following equation:
- Voltage Drop = 2 x L x I x R as follows:
- Voltage Drop = 2 x Distance x Current x Resistance ÷1,000
- L = Distance between lights. Use 1.05 x distance (5% to allow for snaking)
- I = Current = operating amps x number of lamps
- Locate the control center closer to the lighting system
- Install additional control centers
- Note that long runs of parallel circuits should be avoided unless otherwise approved
- Example to Determine Necessary Wire Cable Size:
- 1.05 x 200 ft x 1.4 amps x 5 lamps x 25.8/11.4 = 3,327 cir. mils to 1st lamp
- 1.05 x 225 ft x 1.4 amps x 4 lamps x 25.8/11.4 = 2,994 cir. mils to 2nd lamp
- 1.05 x 190 ft x 1.4 amps x 3 lamps x 25.8/11.4 = 1,896 cir. mils to 3rd lamp
- 1.05 x 200 ft x 1.4 amps x 2 lamps x 25.8/11.4 = 1,331 cir. mils to 4th lamp
- 1.05 x 215 ft x 1.4 amps x 1 lamp x 25.8/11.4 = 715 cir. mils to 5th lamp
- Total Area = 10,263 cir. mils.
- The calculated circular mils is less than the capacity of a #4 AWG wire (41,740 as shown in the above Table. This calculation will need to be made for each circuit at each street light control center.
- The voltage drop should then be checked using E = I x R as follows:
- Voltage Drop = 2 x Distance x Current x Resistance ÷1,000
- Voltage Drop = 2 x Distance x Operating Amps x No. of lamps x Resistance÷1,000
- 2 x 1.05 x 200 ft x 1.4 amps x 5 lamps x 0.31 ohms/1,000 ft = 0.91 volt drop to 1st lamp
- 2 x 1.05 x 225 ft x 1.4 amps x 4 lamps x 0.31 ohms/1,000 ft = 0.82 volt drop to 2nd lamp
- 2 x 1.05 x 190 ft x 1.4 amps x 3 lamps x 0.31 ohms/1,000 ft = 0.52 volt drop to 3rd lamp
- 2 x 1.05 x 200 ft x 1.4 amps x 2 lamps x 0.31 ohms/1,000 ft = 0.36 volt drop to 4th lamp
- 2 x 1.05 x 215 ft x 1.4 amps x 1 lamp x 0.31 ohms/1,000 ft = 0.20 volt drop to 5th lamp
- Total Drop = 2.81 volts
- 2.81 volts/(240 volts x .95) = 1.23% which is less than 5%. Therefore it is acceptable
Calculating Circuit Breaker Ratings:
- The line loss load in amperes is added as follows:
- 14.5 watts/(240 volts x 0.95) + 7 amps = 7.1 amps
- The Trip rating = 7.1 amps x (1.3) = 9.2 amps.
- The street light controller is equipped with standard 30 amp circuit breakers. The circuit breakers can be increased to a 40 amp breaker under heavier loads. For the above example, a 30-amp breaker is more than sufficient.
Approved Streetlighting Equipment:
- Poles for residential streets shall be round, tapered aluminum poles for 15-foot mounting heights.
- Poles for collector streets shall be round, tapered aluminum poles for 30-foot mounting heights.
- Poles for thoroughfare streets shall be round, tapered aluminum poles for 40-foot mounting heights.
Luminaire Bracket Arms:
Collector Streets (30’ Mounting Heights):
Undivided Thoroughfare Streets (40’ Mounting Heights):
Divided Thoroughfare Streets (40’ Mounting Heights):
- Divided thoroughfares typically have a 24’ wide center median to divide opposing lanes of traffic. On divided thoroughfare streets where the light poles are installed in a raised median, there are a few different arm configurations that are used. In sections where there are no left turn lanes and the median is only separating through lanes of traffic, two 12’ arms are used oriented 180 degrees apart.
- Where the median narrows due to the introduction of a left turn lane, a 12’ arm is installed extending over the left turn lane, and an 8’ arm is installed 180 degrees apart extending over the through lanes in the opposite direction.
The type of luminaire used for the design shall be based on the classification of street, functional area classification and the light level required:
- Luminaires used for residential streets shall be post-top luminaire meeting the current standard of the City of Overland Park.
- Luminaires shall be LED roadway luminaires meeting the current standard of the City of Overland Park. They shall be Class C LED’s (250W HPS equivalent) or Class D LED’s (150W HPS equivalent).
- Luminaires shall be LED roadway luminaires meeting the current standard of the City of Overland Park. They shall be Class A LED’s (400W HPS equivalent), Class B (310W HPS equivalent) or Class C LED’s (250W HPS equivalent).
Lamps are only required for residential post top luminaires on residential streets. They shall be 100 watt High Pressure Sodium (HPS) rated at 9,500 lumens.
- Type R foundations are used only with residential style 14’ tall poles (OP14 Series).
Streetlight Control Center Foundation:
Streetlight Circuit Conduit:
- All electrical cable for street light circuits shall be installed in conduit continuous from appurtenance to appurtenance. An appurtenance is defined as a pole, junction box, service box or control center. Conduit shall be gray, high density polyethylene (HDPE), SDR 13.5 generally 2” in diameter unless more than two circuit cables are contained in one conduit. If this is the case, a larger diameter conduit may be used that provides enough room for all the cables while still maintaining less than a 40% fill based on cross sectional area of the conduit and cables.
- Two 2” conduits should be installed from the street light control center foundation to the Type 2 junction box. Each conduit is able to carry two circuits (total of 6 cables) without exceeding the 40% fill.
KCP&L Electrical Service Conduit:
They type of electrical cable is dependant on the particular use. There are four main types of cable, 1) circuit cable, 2) pole and bracket cable, 3) KCP&L electrical service cable and 4) bare copper ground cable.
Pole and Bracket Cable:
- Only #10 AWG copper THHN/THWN electrical cables are allowable in the street light pole, luminare bracket arm and luminaire.
KCP&L Electrical Service Power Cable:
- The size of cable used for the electrical service cable should be based on voltage drop calculations from the power supply to the streetlighting controller cabinet. It is preferable to keep the controller cabinet close enough to the power supply to be able to utilize a #4 AWG copper USE electrical cable since it is the same size and type used for the circuit cables. This will eliminate the need for a contractor to purchase a small quantity of different size cable. KCP&L only requires 2-1c cables from the controller cabinet to their power supply.
Solid Copper Ground Cable:
- A bare solid copper #6 AWG ground cable is required from the street light control center to the adjacent ground rod in order to provide the required grounding according to the National Electric Code.
Type 1 Junction Box:
Type 2 Junction Box:
- Type 2 junction boxes are symbolized by a square with a “J” in it and are used where branch circuits are connected to the main circuit or where more than two conduits enter the same box as shown below. A type 2 junction box should also be located immediately adjacent to a street light control center.
Electrical Connector Kits:
Breakaway Fuse Holders:
- Breakaway fuse holders come as either fused or non-fused. They shall be installed in the base of each street light pole so the wires breakaway away free from the pole foundation in case of vehicular impact. Depending on whether you have one or two luminaires on the pole determines how many breakaway fused and non-fused connectors you will have.
- For single mounted luminaires, each pole will have two fused and two non-fused breakaway connectors.
Fuses and Slugs:
Streetlight Control Centers:
The City has two types of street light control centers that are allowed to be used under specific situations. They are either a single circuit or four circuit control center. Both control centers are designed for a 100 amp service and 240 volt single phase, three wire service. There are limited situations where Kansas City Power and Light Company cannot provide 240 volt service but can provide 208 volt power instead. This will have to be identified on a case by case basis.
Ground Rods and Clamps:
A ½” x 10’ ground rod and clamp is required at every control center foundation and at every concrete pole foundation, if a screw-in foundation cannot be installed.
Breakaway Pole Device:
All poles for 30’ and 40’ mounting heights shall be installed on a breakaway pole device. The breakaway device may either consist of four individual breakaway couplings that are installed on each anchor bolt or one frangible breakaway pole base according to the Standard Details. Breakaway pole devices are not required for 14’ residential type street light poles or if the light pole is located on a raised concrete base, such as in parking lots, or if the poles is installed on top of a concrete bridge rail.
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Preparation of Plans:
Streetlighting Plans as Part of Other Roadway Improvement Projects:
- Features affecting lighting design, such as drive entrances and intersections, curb and median lines, storm drainage pipes and inlets, underground and overhead utilities, existing street lights, existing control centers, existing lighting circuits, existing junction or service boxes and proposed streetlighting system should be shown on the plans with proper symbols as shown in the “Street Light Legend” on the Standard Details. All existing and proposed trees and landscaping shall be indicated in order to avoid conflict with new street light poles. New construction items should be subdued so the streetlighting conduit, poles, boxes, etc. stand out.
Stand-Alone Streetlighting Plans:
- It is acceptable for plans to be prepared on aerial photography base maps instead of topographical survey base maps on stand-alone streetlighting plans when they are not part of a larger roadway improvement project. In such cases, underground and overhead utilities shall still be indicated on the plans along with existing street lights, existing control centers, existing junction or service boxes along with the proposed streetlighting system with proper symbols as shown in the “Street Light Legend” on the Standard Details.
Plan Coordination with Roadway Design:
- The following information should be included on the General Notes sheet in the plans:
- Pedestrian Conflict Area
- Functional Street Classification
- Luminance Design Criteria (as listed in the Design Criteria Table)
- Avg. Maintained Luminance
- Avg: to Min. Luminance Uniformity Ratio
- Max. to Min. Luminance Uniformity Ratio
- Veiling Luminance Ratio
- Luminance Design Results (based on actual design spacing)
- Avg. Maintained Luminance
- Avg. to Min. Luminance Uniformity Ratio
- Max. to Min. Luminance Uniformity Ratio
- Veiling Luminance Ratio
- Illuminance Design Results
- Avg. Maintained Illuminance
- Avg. to Min. Illuminance Uniformity Ratio
Field Check Plans:
- Field check lighting plans should show the location of all poles and luminaires, final locations of control centers, power supplies, cable routing and junction boxes. Each pole should be identified according to the “Street Light Designation” in the Standard Details which includes the control center address (show as XXXX or YYYY if unknown at this stage), circuit number, pole number, arm lengths, and station and offset.
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Computation of Quantities:
Streetlight Poles and Bracket Arms:
Streetlight poles and associated luminaire arms are always aluminum, unless otherwise specified in the plans or bill of materials. Street light poles are quantified per each according to the mounting height with the included bracket arm length and number of bracket arms. For example a 40’ aluminum pole w/ 8’ bracket arm or a 30’ aluminum pole w/ twin 8’ bracket arms.
foundations of the various types should be measured per each for each type used in the design.
- Refer to the Screw-in Foundation Anchor Detail table on the Standard Detatil sheet “Pole Foundation Details” to select the foundation type based on the OP pole series designation. For example, a OP401 pole designation requires an F1 foundation. A OP403 pole designation requires an F2 foundation.
Concrete Pole Foundations:
Luminaires should be measured per each according to the type used in the plans.
Luminaires on Collector Streets:
- On collector streets, the luminaires shall be LED cobraheads of the specified Class C or D as shown in the design.
Luminaires on Thoroughfare Streets:
Luminaires on Residential Streets:
- On residential streets, fixtures should be post top luminaires, including the 100W HPS lamp. When relamping existing post top luminaires, revise one of the lines of text in the Bill of Materials to read “100 Watt HPS Lamp” and fill in the quantity of the number of individual lamps required.
Junction and Service Boxes:
Concrete Control Center Foundations:
Photo cells should be measured per each. One photo cell is required in every new street light control center. Relocated control centers will be able to re-use the existing photo cell.
Conduit should be measured per linear foot for each type and diameter used.
KCP&L Electrical Service Conduit:
- Conduit should be measured from the center of the street light controller (not the center of the entire pad) to the center of the power pole or transformer plus 4’ to allow for the large radius sweeps at each end. No additional measurement will be made for PVC conduit elbows or conduit fittings.
- Example: If the center to center distance is 100’, the conduit length required is 100’ + 4’ = 104’
1” PVC Conduit for Equipment Ground:
- Add 4’ of conduit between two streetlight poles.
- Add 3’ of conduit between a streetlight pole and a junction box.
- Add 2’ of conduit between a streetlight pole and a service box.
- Add 3’ of conduit between a streetlight control center and a junction box.
- Example 4: If the center to center distance between a control center and a junction box is 5’, the conduit length required is 5’ + 3’ = 9’
Cable should be measured per linear foot for each type used.
3-1c #4 USE Distribution Cable:
- Add 6’ of slack at each junction or service box for each circuit contained within.
- Add 5’ of slack at each street light control circuit for each circuit contained within.
- Example 3: If the center to center distance between two junction boxes is 60’, the cable length required is 60’ + 6’ + 6’ = 70’
- Example 4: If the center to center distance between a 14’ street light pole and a junction box is 20’, the cable length required is 20’ + 4’ + 6’ = 30’
- Example 5: If the center to center distance between a junction box and a streetlighting control center is 10’, the cable length required is 10 + 6’ + 5’ = 21’ per circuit.
1c #10 Pole and Bracket Cable:
- The measurement for 1c #10 pole and bracket cable should be measured per linear foot. The length depends on the mounting height of the luminaire, the length and type of bracket arm and the number of luminaires mounted on each pole. Two 1c #10 cables are required for the power to the luminaire and one 1c#10 cable is required for the ground to the luminaire.
- A 12" to 14" cable surplus in each of the 1c#10 AWG pole and bracket cables is to be provided from the multiple tap connector to the line side of the fuse holder. The length of wire from the load side of the fuseholder to the luminaire shall have 18" of slack.
1c #10 Pole and Bracket Cable (Poles with Single Luminaire):
- The total length for the power cables varies depending on the pole series and the bracket arm length. The total length has to be multiplied by two since there are two wires. In the following table “AL” stands for the arm length. Additional cable also has to be added for the ground cable that attaches to the ground lug in the pole as well as to the ground terminal in the luminaire.
1c#10 Pole and Bracket Cable for Poles with Single Luminaire Mounting Height Pole Series 1c#10 (Power) 1c#10 (Ground) 1c#10 (Total) 15' OP14 30' 17' 47' 30' OP301 & OP302 55' + (2 x AL) 30' + AL 85' + (3 x AL) 40' OP401 & OP402 75' + (2 x AL) 40' + AL 115' + (3 x AL)
1c #10 Pole and Bracket Cable (Poles with Twin Luminaires):
- The total length for the power cables varies depending on the pole series and the bracket arm length. The total length has to be multiplied by four since there are two wires required for each luminaire. In the following table “AL” stands for the arm length. Additional cable also has to be added for the ground cable that attaches to the ground lug in the pole as well as to the ground terminal in the luminaire. For twin luminaires, a common ground cable is split out two separate cables at the top of the pole. (See the Electrical Connector Details, in the Standard Details)
1c#10 Pole and Bracket Cable for Poles with Twin Luminaires Mounting Height Pole Series 1c#10 (Power) 1c#10 (Ground) 1c#10 (Total) 30' OP303 112' + (4 x AL) 30' + (2 x AL) 142' + (6 x AL) 40' OP401 152' + (4 x AL) 40' + (2 x AL) 192' + (6 x AL) 40' OP403 148' + (4 x AL) 40' + (2 x AL) 188' + (6 x AL)
Electrical Service Power Cable:
- Add 5’ of slack at the streetlight control center mounted on a flush mounted concrete base.
1c #6 Solid Copper Ground Cable:
Electrical connectors include breakaway non-fused connector kits, breakaway fused connector kits, fuses, and multi-tap street light connectors. The quantity at each pole depends on whether there are one or two luminaires on each pole. Quantities should be added at each existing pole where a new circuit is being tied into an existing circuit. The number of each type of electrical connector will be measured as follows:
One Luminaire per Pole:
- Three multi-tap electrical connectors are required
- Two breakaway fused connector kits are required
- Two 8 amp fuses are required
- Two breakaway non-fused connectors with ground “slug” is required
Two Luminaires per Pole:
- Three multi-tap electrical connectors are required
- Four breakaway fused connector kits are required
- Four 8 amp fuses are required
- Two breakaway non-fused connectors with ground “slug” is required
Breakaway Pole Devices:
The measurement for breakaway pole devices should be per each for each breakaway frangible base or per set for a set of four breakaway couplings for every street light pole with a 30’ or 40’ mounting height. Breakaway pole devices are not required for 14’ poles or if a pole is mounted on a raised concrete pedestal or bridge rail.
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